Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission

Research Reports

Use of bioregulators to enhance apple fruit quality and maintain fruit condition (2004)

FINAL PROJECT REPORT
WTFRC Project #PH-02-245
YEAR 0/0
Organization Project #5350-43000-003-17T
Title:Use of bioregulators to enhance apple fruit quality and maintain fruit condition
PI:Stephen R Drake
Organization:USDA, ARS, TFRL, Wenatchee, WA
 PDF version of report

Co-PIs

D.C. Elfving, Horticulturist, Washington State University, Wenatchee, WA

Collaborators

M. A. Drake, Food Scientist (Sensory), North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC

T.A. Eisele, Food Chemist (Sensory), Tree Top, Inc. Selah, WA

Objectives

Develop and test uses of bioregulators, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), Ethephon (ETH) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) to enhance apple fruit quality and consumer acceptance without loss of long-term storage potential.

Significant findings

1.  AVG

Reduced splitting

Reduced drop

Reduced firmness loss

Reduced color development ('Delicious' only)

Reduced soluble solids

Reduced watercore

Reduced ethylene production

Reduced sensory quality whole apples 2 of 3 years and juice 3 of 3 years (compared to control fruit, AVG treated marginally acceptable).

2.  ETH

Increased splitting

Increased drop

Enhanced firmness loss

Enhanced color

Enhanced soluble solids

Enhanced sensory quality (whole and juice) before storage.  After storage sensory texture and flavor reduced texture unacceptable.


3.  AVG + ETH

Good storage, firmness retarded

Good color

Increased total carbohydrates

Enhanced sensory quality (whole and juice)

4.  1-MCP

Firmness maintained, before and after ripening

Reduced sensory flavor quality whole apples:  1 of 2 years (Note: starch level 2.0 first year and <3.0 second year) and juice 2 of 2 years.  (Acceptable due to excellent texture)

Enhanced sensory texture (whole)

Reduced sensory flavor quality juice:  2 years, both 'Delicious' and 'Gala'

5. 1-MCP + ETH

Good firmness

Good color

Enhanced soluble solids

Enhanced sensory quality (whole and Juice)

Results and discussion

Treatment used on ‘Delicious’ (‘Scarletspur’) and  ‘Gala’ ('Gale').  Bioregulator applications:  AVG at 125 ppm, Ethephon at 300 ppm alone, and AVG + ethephon.   1-MCP at 1 ppm applied to all treatment combinations a day following harvest.  Evaluations (2003-04):  'Delicious' evaluations at harvest (17 Sept and 30 Sept), after 60 days RA, 120 and 180 CA (2.0% O2 & <2.0 % CO2).  'Gala' at harvest (26 Aug and 9 Sept), after 60 days RA and 120 days CA (2.0% O2 & <2.0 % CO2).

Use of bioregulators can and does have a major impact on apple quality at harvest and after either RA or CA storage.  AVG or ethephon, used alone can significantly reduce quality when compared to non-treated fruit.  A combination of AVG and ethephon enhances fruit quality by maintaining texture with enhanced soluble solids and color.  1-MCP used alone maintains fruit firmness but can reduce sensory quality when compared to non-treated fruit.  A combination of 1-MCP and ethephon produces fruit, after long-term storage, with good firmness and color, and better sensory acceptance than 1-MCP used alone.  Proper use of bioregulators produces fruit with good quality (firmness, color and sensory acceptance) after storage with good shelf-life.

Methods

Delicious’  (‘Scarletspur’) and  ‘Gala’ ('Gale').  Bioregulator applications:  AVG (125 ppm), Ethephon (300 ppm) alone, and ethephon treatment (300 ppm) of previously AVG-treated (125 ppm) fruit.  MCP to be applied to all treatment combinations the next day following harvest.  Eight treatments  (Control, AVG, Ethephon, AVG+Ethephon and Control, AVG, Ethephon, AVG+Ethephon with MCP).  Fruit will be evaluated after the second harvest and after both 60 days RA and  120 days CA storage.

Publications

Drake, M.A., S.R. Drake, D.C. Eflving and T.A. Eisele. 2002. Influence of bioregulators on apple fruit quality. Proceedings of the Institute of Food Technologist, Anaheim, CA.  pp. 109.

Drake, S.R., D.C. Elfving, T.A. Eisele, M.A. Drake, S.L. Drake and D.B. Visser. 2003.

Effects of ethephon and aminoethoxyvinylglycine on the carbohydrate and acid contents of ‘Scarletspur Delicious’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.).  Proceedings of the Institute of Food Technologist, Chicago, IL  pp. 115.

Drake, S.R., M.A. Drake, S.L. Drake, D.C. Elfving and T.A. Eisele.  2004.  The influence of bioregulators on the instrumental and sensory quality of apples and apple juice.  Proceeding of the Institute of Food Technologist, Las Vegas, NV. (In press)

Drake, S.R., D.C. Elfving, M.A. Drake, T.A. Eisele and S.L. Drake.  Bioregulators, aminoethoxyvinylglycine and ethephon and their influence on carbohydrates, acids and mineral content of 'Scarletspur' Delicious apple Juice.  Journal Agriculture and Food Chemistry.  (In review).

Drake, S.R., D.C. Elfving, M.A. Drake, T.A. Eisele and S.L. Drake. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine and ethephon, bioregulators that influence objective and subjective quality of apples and apple products.  HortTechnology (In review).

Tables

Sensory evaluation, at harvest, of 'Delicious' apple juice as influenced by the bioregulators AVG and ETH, or a combination of AVG + ETH, 2002.

 

 

 

 

Harvest I

 

 

 

Harvest II

 

Control/Bioregulator

 

Preference %z

 

Intensityy

 

Like

 

 

 

Preference %

 

Intensity

 

Like

 

Control

 

 

 

4.3a

 

6.7a

 

 

 

 

 

4.9a

 

7.3a

 

125 ppm AVG

 

C

 

3.9b

 

6.4a

 

 

 

C

 

4.0b

 

6.3b

 

150 ppm ETH

 

T

 

4.6a

 

7.0a

 

 

 

N

 

5.0a

 

7.3a

 

AVG + 150 ppm ETH

 

T

 

4.4a

 

6.9a

 

 

 

C

 

4.5b

 

6.9a
zSignificantly preferred (P£0.05) as the preference:  T=treatment, N=neither control or treatment, C=control
yIntensity and like on a scale of 1 to 9 (1=too weak, or dislike extremely; 5= just right, or neither like nor dislike; 9= too strong, or like extremely).
xMeans in a column not followed by a common letter are significantly different (P£0.05).
N=50.

 

 


Sensory evaluation of 'Delicious' apple juice as influenced by the bioregulators ethephon (ETH) aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), after 120 days CA storage, 2003.

 

 

 

Bioregulator

 

        MCP

 

Preference %z

 

Intensityy

 

Like

 

Control

 

No

 

 

 

4.7ax

 

7.4a

 

150 ppm ETH

 

No

 

N

 

5.0a

 

7.4a

 

AVG + ETH

 

No

 

N

 

4.6a

 

7.4a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1-MCP

 

Yes

 

C

 

4.0c

 

6.5c

 

150 ppm ETH

 

Yes

 

N

 

4.7a

 

6.8b

 

AVG + ETH

 

Yes

 

N

 

4.0c

 

7.2a
zSignificantly preferred (P£).05) as the preference:  T=treatment, N=neither control or treatment, C=control
yIntensity and like on a scale of 1 to 9 (1=too weak, or dislike extremely; 5= just right, or neither like nor dislike; 9= too strong, or like extremely).
xMeans in a column not followed by a common letter are significantly different (P£0.05).
N= 50

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Sensory evaluation of 'Delicious' and 'Gala' apple juice (commercial harvest) as influenced by the bioregulators ethephon (ETH), aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), after storage, 2004

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

'Delicious' 120 days CA

 

'Gala' 60 days RA

 

Bioregulator

 

     1-MCP

 

Preference%z

 

Intensityy

 

Like

 

Preference %

 

Intensity

 

Like

 

Control

 

No

 

 

 

4.7ax

 

7.5 a

 

 

 

5.1a

 

7.6a

 

125 ppm AVG

 

No

 

C

 

4.6a

 

 7.0b

 

N

 

5.4 a

 

7.4a

 

300 ppm ETH

 

No

 

N

 

4.5a

 

7.6 a

 

N

 

5.1a

 

7.4a

 

AVG + 300  ppm ETH

 

No

 

N

 

4.9a

 

6.9b

 

N

 

4.7b

 

7.5a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 

1-MCP

 

Yes

 

C

 

4.3b

 

7.0b

 

C

 

4.7b

 

7.1b

 

125 ppm AVG

 

Yes

 

C

 

4.0b

 

6.3c

 

C

 

4.3b

 

7.6a

 

300 ppm ETH

 

Yes

 

C

 

4.9a

 

6.9b

 

C

 

4.4b

 

7.0b

 

AVG + 300 ppm ETH

 

Yes

 

C

 

4.5a

 

6.7b 

 

N

 

4.7b

 

6.6b
zSignificantly preferred (P£).05) as the preference:  T=treatment, N=neither control or treatment, C=control
yIntensity and like on a scale of 1 to 9 (1=too weak, or dislike extremely; 5= just right, or neither like nor dislike; 9= too strong, or like extremely).
xMeans in a column not followed by a common letter are significantly different (P£0.05).
N=25.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Consumer sensory evaluation of  'Delicious' and 'Gala' apples as influenced by the bioregulators  AVG and  ETH, or a combination of AVG + ETH, at harvest, 2003.

 

 

 

 

 

'Delicious'

 

 

 

'Gala'

 

 

Bioregulator

 

Over-all
Acceptabilityz

 

 

Flavorz

 

 

Texturez

 

 

 

Over-all
Acceptability

 

 

Flavor

 

 

Texture

 

Control

 

6.5ay

 

6.5a

 

6.6b

 

 

 

7.1a

 

7.0ab

 

7.3a

 

125 ppm AVG

 

6.5a

 

6.a

 

6.6b

 

 

 

7.0a

 

6.8b

 

7.3a

 

300 ppm ETH

 

6.6a

 

6.5a

 

6.9a

 

 

 

7.3a

 

7.2a

 

7.4a

 

AVG + ETH 

 

6.5a

 

6.2a

 

6.9a

 

 

 

7.3a

 

7.2a

 

7.5a

 

Harvest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

 

6.4b

 

6.2b

 

6.6b

 

 

 

7.1a

 

6.9a

 

7.5a

 

II

 

6.7a

 

6.6a

 

6.9a

 

 

 

7.2a

 

7.0a

 

7.2b
EEvaluated on a scale of 1 to 9 (1= dislike extremely, 9= like extremely.
yMeans in a column, within bioregulator or harvest, not followed by a common letter are significantly different (P£0.05).
N=210.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Consumer sensory evaluation of 'Delicious' apples as influenced by the bioregulators ethephon (ETH), aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP), after controlled atmosphere storage (180 days), 2003.

 

 

 

 

              Bioregulator

 

          
     1-MCP

 

Over-all
Acceptabilityz

 

 

Flavorz

 

 

Texturez

 

Control

 

No

 

6.5aby

 

6.5ab

 

6.3b

 

150 ppm ETH

 

No

 

5.8c

 

6.0c

 

5.6c

 

AVG + 150 ppm ETH

 

No

 

6.7a

 

6.6a

 

6.9a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1-MCP

 

Yes

 

6.3b

 

6.0c

 

6.8a

 

150 ppm ETH

 

Yes

 

6.4ab

 

6.1bc

 

7.0a

 

AVG + 150 ppm ETH

 

Yes

 

6.5ab

 

6.3abc

 

7.0a
zEvaluated on a scale of 1 to 9 (1=dislike extremely, 9= like extremely).
yMeans in a column not followed by a common letter are significantly different (P£0.05).
N=210.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Consumer sensory evaluation of  'Delicious' and 'Gala' apples as influenced by the bioregulators AVG, ETH and 1-MCP or a combination of AVG + ETH after 120 days CA storage, 2004.

 

 

 

 

'Delicious'

 

 

 

'Gala'

 

 

           Bioregulator

 

Over-all
Acceptabilityz

 

 

Flavorz

 

 

Texturez

 

 

 

Over-all Acceptabilityz

 

 

Flavorz

 

 

Texturez

 

Control

 

6.1by

 

6.2b

 

5.9c

 

 

 

6.6a

 

6.8a

 

6.0b

 

125 ppm AVG

 

6.6a

 

6.4ab

 

7.2ab

 

 

 

6.8a

 

6.5a

 

7.3a

 

300 ppm ETH

 

6.6a

 

6.2b

 

6.9b

 

 

 

6.9a

 

6.7a

 

7.2a

 

AVG + 300  ppm ETH 

 

6.5a

 

6.ab

 

7.ab

 

 

 

7.0a

 

6.8a

 

7.4a

 

1-MCP

 

6.7a

 

6.7a

 

7.3a

 

 

 

6.6a

 

6.5a

 

7.2a
EEvaluated on a scale of 1 to 9 (1= dislike extremely, 9= like extremely).
yMeans in a column, within bioregulator not followed by a common letter are significantly different (P£0.05).
N=190

 

Quality attributes of 'Delicious' apples as influenced by the bioregulators aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and ethephon (ETH), or a combination of AVG + ETH, at harvest, 2002.

 

 

 

 

Peel Color

 

Firmness

 

Starch

 

Ethylene

 

Brix's

 

Acidity

 

Brix's/Acids

 

Bioregulator

 

     L

 

hue

 

(Newtons)

 

(1 to 5)

 

(ppm)

 

(E)

 

(% malic)

 

(Ratio)

 

Control

 

25.3az

 

14.1a

 

72.4b

 

2.5b

 

16.8a

 

13.1a

 

0.24a

 

55.9a

 

ETH (150 ppm)

 

25.2a

 

13.8a

 

68.0c

 

3.0a

 

21.7a

 

13.3a

 

0.23a

 

57.4a

 

AVG (125 ppm)

 

25.1a

 

12.4b

 

75.1a

 

2.0c

 

1.7b

 

12.4b

 

0.24a

 

51.8b

 

ETH + AVG

 

25.0a

 

12.6b

 

75.2a

 

2.4b

 

2.5b

 

13.1a

 

0.24a

 

55.6a

 

Harvest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

 

25.6a

 

14.4a

 

77.4a

 

1.9b

 

3.7b

 

12.3b

 

0.25a

 

50.0b

 

II

 

24.7b

 

12.0b

 

67.9b

 

3.0a

 

17.7a

 

13.7a

 

0.23b

 

60.3a
zMeans in a column, within bioregulator or harvest, not followed by a common letter are significantly different (P£0.05).
Quality attributes of  'Delicious' apples as influenced by the bioregulators aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) and ethephon (ETH), or a combination of AVG + ETH, with and without 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), after 180 days CA storage, 2003.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peel Color

 

Firmness

 

 

 

Ethylene

 

Brix's

 

Acidity

 

Brix's/Acids

 

    Bioregulator

 

     L

 

hue

 

(Newtons)

 

 

 

(ppm)

 

(E)

 

(% malic)

 

(Ratio)

 

Control

 

24.7bz

 

14.0ab

 

62.8c

 

 

 

39.8a

 

13.7ab

 

0.22a

 

61.5a

 

ETH (150 ppm)

 

24.7b

 

14.8a

 

60.9c

 

 

 

34.8a

 

13.9a

 

0.22a

 

62.7a

 

AVG (125 ppm)

 

25.3a

 

13.7b

 

70.8a

 

 

 

5.0b

 

13.4b

 

0.23a

 

58.1b

 

ETH + AVG

 

24.7b

 

13.5b

 

66.5b

 

 

 

6.4b

 

13.9a

 

0.23a

 

60.5b

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Control

 

24.3b

 

14.2a

 

57.1b

 

 

 

42.4a

 

13.7a

 

0.22b

 

61.9a

 

1-MCP

 

25.4a

 

13.9a

 

73.5a

 

 

 

0.6b

 

13.8a

 

0.32a

 

59.5b
zMeans in a column, within bioregulator, or control and 1-MCP, not followed by a common letter are significantly different (P£0.05).

 

WA Tree Fruit Research Commission , 1719 Springwater Ave, Wenatchee WA 98801, 509-665-8271, Contact Us

The WTFRC Research Reports database is hosted on the servers of WSU-Tree Fruit Research & Extension Center